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  • 저자명 : JanghoLee a, Soo YongLee a, DavidChung a, Ki-WanPark a, KyuyoungShim a, JongchunLee b, Jong-HyoukPark c
     
    Author Affiliations
    a Natural Environment Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42, Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 22689, Republic of Korea
    b Indoor Environment and Noise Research Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42, Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 22689, Republic of Korea
    c Measurement and Analysis Division, Jeonbuk Regional Environment Office, 120, Anjeon-ro, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 54872, Republic of Korea
     
    발행연도 : 6 January 2020
     
    ISSN : 0048-9697
     
    발행처 : Elsevier
     
    Keyword : Mercury accumulation, Marine ecosystem, Indicator sample, Breeding environment
     
    Highlights
    - Black-tailed gull eggs were tested for mercury (Hg) monitoring in coastal areas.
    - The eggs were collected at two breeding sites with different Hg pollution levels.
    - Hg concentration in eggs was consistent with that at the two breeding sites.
    - Black-tailed gull eggs are suitable for monitoring Hg pollution at breeding sites.
     
    Abstract
    Studies on the monitoring of mercury accumulation using high trophic-level predators of the marine ecosystem have been scarce in South Korea. In this study, we compared the mercury concentrations of the eggs of the black-tailed gulls, a higher-order predator, breeding in two coastal areas. Breeding sites with varying mercury concentrations in land-origin freshwater fish and freshwater and marine sediments were selected in the southeastern (Hongdo Island) and western (Baengnyeongdo Island) seas. The 5-year mean total mercury concentration in eggs collected during the breeding seasons from 2012 to 2016 was higher in those collected from Hongdo than in those collected from Baengnyeongdo. This difference in mercury concentration in eggs was observed for each year. In addition, the total mercury concentration in eggs was consistently higher on Hongdo, which also had higher mercury pollution, than on Baengnyeongdo Island. These results support the suitability of black-tailed gull eggs for monitoring of mercury pollution.

     

  • 저자명 : Jhoon Kim, Ukkyo Jeong, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, Jae H. Kim, Rokjin J. Park, Hanlim Lee, Chul Han Song, Yong-Sang Choi, Kwon-Ho Lee, Jung-Moon Yoo, Myeong-Jae Jeong, Seon Ki Park, Kwang-Mog Lee, Chang-Keun Song, Sang-Woo Kim, Young Joon Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Mijin Kim, Sujung Go, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Christopher Chan Miller, Jay Al-Saadi, Ben Veihelmann, Pawan K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, David P. Haffner, Dai Ho Ko, Seung Hoon Lee, Jung-Hun Woo, Heesung Chong, Sang Seo Park, Dennis Nicks, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Jung Moon, Ara Cho, Jongmin Yoon, Sang-kyun Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Kyunghwa Lee, Hana Lee, Seoyoung Lee, Myungje Choi, Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, David P. Edwards, Mina Kang, Mijin Eo, Juseon Bak, Kanghyun Baek, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Jiwon Yang, Junsung Park, Kyung Man Han, Bo-Ram Kim, Hee-Woo Shin, Haklim Choi, Ebony Lee, Jihyo Chong, Yesol Cha, Ja-Ho Koo, Hitoshi Irie, Sachiko Hayashida, Yasko Kasai, Yugo Kanaya, Cheng Liu, Jintai Lin, James H. Crawford, Gregory R. Carmichael, Michael J. Newchurch, Barry L. Lefer, Jay R. Herman, Robert J. Swap, Alexis K. H. Lau, Thomas P. Kurosu, Glen Jaross, Berit Ahlers, Marcel Dobber, C. Thomas McElroy, and Yunsoo Cho
     
    Author Affiliations
    J. Kim, Si-W. Kim, Go, H. Chong, Hana Lee, S. Lee, M. Choi, Koo Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; U. Jeong Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland; Ahn, Y.-S. Choi, Yoo, S. K. Park, Kang, Eo, E. Lee Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea; J. H. Kim, Baek Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea; R. J. Park, Sa.-W. Kim, Kwon School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; Hanlim Lee, Yang, J. Park Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea; C. H. Song, Y. J. Kim, Han, J. Chong Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, South Korea; K.-H. Lee, M.-J. Jeong, Shin Gangneung Wonju National University, Gangneung, South Korea; K.-M. Lee, H. Choi Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; C.-K. Song, Cha Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea; M. Kim Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea, and Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; X. Liu, Chance, Chan Miller, Gonzalez Abad Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Al-Saadi, Crawford NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia; Veihelmann, Ahlers ESTEC, ESA, Noordwijk, Netherlands; Bhartia, Torres, Swap, Jaross NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Haffner Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, Maryland; Ko, S. H. Lee Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon, South Korea; Woo Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea; S. S. Park Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, and Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea; Nicks Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colorado; W. J. Choi, Moon, Cho, Yoon, S.-k. Kim National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea; Hong Pukyong National University, Busan, and National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea; K. Lee Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, and National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea; Veefkind, Levelt Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, and Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Edwards National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Bak Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea, and Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts; B.-R. Kim Ewha Womans University, Seoul, and Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon, South Korea; Irie Chiba University, Chiba, Japan; Hayashida Nara Women’s University, Nara, and Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan; Kasai National Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Tokyo, Japan; Kanaya Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan; C. Liu University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China; Lin Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China; Carmichael University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Newchurch University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama; Lefer NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Herman Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland; Lau Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Kurosu Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Dobber EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany; McElroy York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Y. Choi University of Houston, Houston, Texas
     
    발행연도 : 01 Jan 2020
     
    ISSN : 0003-0007
     
    발행처 : AMS
     
    Abstract
    The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is scheduled for launch in February 2020 to monitor air quality (AQ) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) for the first time. With the development of UV visible spectrometers at sub-nm spectral resolution and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, estimates of the column amounts of atmospheric pollutants (O3 , NO2 , SO2 , HCHO, CHOCHO, and aerosols) can be obtained. To date, all the UV visible satellite missions monitoring air quality have been in low Earth orbit (LEO), allowing one to two observations per day. With UV visible instruments on GEO platforms, the diurnal variations of these pollutants can now be determined. Details of the GEMS mission are presented, including instrumentation, scientific algorithms, predicted performance, and applications for air quality forecasts through data assimilation. GEMS will be on board the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 2 (GEO-KOMPSAT-2) satellite series, which also hosts the Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager 2 (GOCI-2). These three instruments will provide synergistic science products to better understand air quality, meteorology, the long-range transport of air pollutants, emission source distributions, and chemical processes. Faster sampling rates at higher spatial resolution will increase the probability of finding cloud-free pixels, leading to more observations of aerosols and trace gases than is possible from LEO. GEMS will be joined by NASA’s Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and ESA’s Sentinel-4 to form a GEO AQ satellite constellation in early 2020s, coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS).

     

     

     

  • 저자명 : Won-SeokYang, Young-JinLee, Jun-GuKang, Sun-KyoungShin, Tae-WanJeon
     
    Author Affiliations
    Environmental Resources Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyong-ro 42, Seogu, Incheon 22689, South Korea
     
    발행연도 : 15 December 2019
     
    ISSN : 0956-053X
     
    발행처 : Elsevier
     
    Keyword : Solid recovered fuel (SRF), Quality test method, Transportation temperature, Acid digestion, Microwave power, Heavy metal content
     
    Highlights
    - Solid recovered fuel has a poor public perception and its use is declining.
    - To improve its quality, use, and perception, better quality test methods are needed.
    - There were no significant differences in sample transportation temperature.
    - 5 g samples were found to be more appropriate for ash content analysis.
    - Minimum acid digestion conditions were 600 W, 10 min of reaction time at 180 °C.
     
    Abstract
    Management of solid recovered fuel (SRF) in South Korea is unique from most other countries in that it is based on a single standard. All SRFs are distributed at the same price irrespective of their performance, resulting in utilization problems and a low degree of acceptance among consumers. Moreover, the difficulty of temperature maintenance during transportation, excessive ash content, and the use of inappropriate microwave acid digestion methods pose challenges to SRF reliability. To address these issues, we compared the relevant management statuses in South Korea with those of the international community and reviewed the effects of the transportation temperature, ash content, and microwave acid digestion technique. The moisture, ash, sulfur, and chlorine contents as well as the lower heating values (LHVs) of all the samples from South Korea were found to be below the standard [international] thresholds, and they were barely influenced by the transportation temperature. In addition, 5 g samples were found to be more appropriate for ash content analysis than the 20 g samples used in South Korea, with the former producing smaller standard deviations. The optimal microwave acid digestion conditions were also determined to be a reaction time with nitric acid of >10 min, temperature of 180 °C, and microwave power of 600 W. The results of this study highlight the need for revising the SRF test methods used in South Korea, to boost the market and enhance quality reliability.

     

  • 저자명 : Tae-Woo Kang, Won-Pyo Park, Young-Un Han, Ki Moon Bong & Kyunghyun Kim
     
    Author Affiliations
    Kang, TW., Park, WP., Han, YU. et al. Natural and artificial radioactivity in volcanic ash soils of Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and assessment of the radiation hazards: importance of soil properties. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 323, 1113 1124 (2020).
     
    발행연도 : 21 January 2020
     
    ISSN : 0236-5731
     
    발행처 : Springer
     
    Keyword : Natural radionuclides, 137Cs, Radiological hazard, Annual outdoor effective dose rate, Volcanic ash soils, Jeju Islan

  • 저자명 : Ingu Ryu 1,Soonju Yu 1 andSewoong Chung 2,*
     
    Author Affiliations
    1 Han River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), 42, Dumulmeori-gil 68 beon-gil, Yangseo-myeon, Yangpyeong-gun, Gyeonggi-do 12585, Korea
    2 Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 28644, Korea
    * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
     
    발행연도 : 6 March 2020
     
    발행처 : MDPI
     
    Keyword : density currents; high-frequency monitoring; inflow mixing; Paldang reservoir; run-of-the-river reservoir; water quality modeling
     
    Abstract
    Inflow mixing affects the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of water quality in reservoirs. Reservoir water quality management requires accurate prediction of density flow regimes to understand the spatiotemporal distribution of dissolved and particulate nutrients and organics. This study aims to characterize the mixing and circulation of three rivers with different physicochemical properties in a run-of-the-river (ROR) reservoir, using high-frequency monitoring and three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic modeling. The Aquatic Ecosystem Model (AEM3D) was constructed for the reservoir and calibrated with high-frequency data obtained from May June 2016, accurately reproducing the observed spatiotemporal variations of flow velocity, water temperature, and electrical conductivity (EC) in the reservoir. High-frequency data and 3D model results showed that mixing of the rivers in the ROR reservoir is governed by density flow regimes formed by influent water temperature differences. At the confluence, colder and warmer river influents formed underflows and surface buoyant overflows, respectively. The spatial arrangement of flow direction, water residence time, and EC concentration were largely controlled by the buoyancy-driven flow. Stagnant areas with long residence times corresponded with areas of observed algal blooms and hypoxia. High-frequency sensor technology, combined with 3D hydrodynamic modeling, is effective for understanding the complex flow regimes and associated water quality characteristics in ROR-type reservoirs.

     

     

     

  • 저자명 : Seoung Soo Lee1, George Kablick III1,2, Zhanqing Li1, Chang Hoon Jung3, Yong-Sang Choi4, Junshik Um5, and Won Jun Choi6
     
    Author Affiliations
    1 Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
    2 US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
    3 Department of Health Management, Kyungin Women's University, Incheon, South Korea
    4 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea
    5 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Division of Earth Environmental System, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
    6 National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, South Korea
     
    발행연도 : 23 Mar 2020

    ISSN : 1680-7316
     
    발행처 : EGU
     
    Abstract
    Using a modeling framework, this study investigates how a pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) event influences water vapor concentrations and cirrus-cloud properties near the tropopause, specifically focusing on how fire-produced aerosols affect this role. Results from a case study show that when observed fire intensity is high, there is an insignificant impact of fire-produced aerosols on the development of the pyroCb and associated changes in water vapor and cirrus clouds near the tropopause. However, as fire intensity weakens, effects of those aerosols on microphysical variables and processes such as droplet size and autoconversion increase. Due to this, aerosol-induced invigoration of convection is significant for pyroCb with weak-intensity fires and associated weak surface heat fluxes. This leads to a situation where there is a greater aerosol effect on the transport of water vapor to the upper troposphere and the production of cirrus clouds with weak-intensity fires, whereas this effect is muted with strong-intensity fires.

     

  • 저자명 : Hyun-Jeoung Lee 1,Chansik Kim 2,Hong-Duck Ryu 1,Eu Gene Chung 1,*,Dongseok Shin 1 andJae Kwan Lee 1
     
    Author Affiliations
    1 Department of Water Environment Research, National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon 22689, Korea
    2 Accident Coordination & Training Division, National Institute of Chemical Safety, Gajeongbuk-ro 90, Yuseong-gu, Dajeon 34111, Korea
    * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
     
    발행연도 : 21 February 2020
     
    발행처 : MDPI
     
    Keyword : pesticides; veterinary pharmaceuticals; high-resolution mass spectrometry; quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry; on-line SPE; monitoring; agricultural watershed
     
    Abstract
    Pesticides and veterinary pharmaceuticals are used for effective crop production and prevention of livestock diseases; these chemicals are released into the environment via various pathways. Although the chemicals are typically present in trace amounts post-release, they could disturb aquatic ecosystems and public health through resistance development toward drugs or diseases, e.g., reproductive disorders. Thus, the residues of pesticides and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment must be managed and monitored. To that end, we developed a simultaneous analysis method for 41 target chemicals in environmental water samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) coupled with an on-line solid-phase extraction system. Calibration curves for determining linearity were constructed for 10 750 ng L 1, and the coefficient of determination for each chemical exceeded 0.99. The method’s detection and quantitation limits were 0.32 1.72 ng L 1 and 1.02 5.47 ng L 1, respectively. The on-line solid-phase extraction system exhibited excellent method reproducibility and reduced experimental error. As the proposed method is applicable to the monitoring of pesticides and veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater samples acquired near agricultural areas, it allows for the management of chemicals released into the environment.

     

     

  • 저자명 : Seok Jea Youn, Hun Nyun Kim, Soon Ju Yu, Myeong-Seop Byeon
     
    Author Affiliations
    Han River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Yangpyeong-gun, Republic of Korea
     
    발행연도 : 27 February 2020
     
    ISSN : 1747-6585
     
    발행처 : Wiley
     
    Keyword : Dolichospermum; Merismopedia; non-nitrogen- xer; TN:TP ratio; water temperature
     
    Abstract
    We investigated the relationship between cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in the Paldang Lake watershed, South Korea, by examining samples from the Bukhan and Namhan Rivers weekly from 2011 to 2015. Cyanobacteria were detected in summer, when water temperatures reached 20°C or more. Merismopedia, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, dominated the Namhan River, which had high nitrogen concentrations. In the Bukhan River, Dolichospermum, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, was dominant. Temporary nitrogen inflow into the Bukhan River due to rainfall transformed the cyanobacterial community from one dominated by nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Dolichospermum) to one dominated by non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Microcystis). Geosmin was highly correlated with Dolichospermum in the Bukhan River (r = 0.947, P < 0.01) and its concentration changed in accordance with Dolichospermum cell counts. In the Merismopedia-dominated Namhan River, geosmin concentrations were low, suggesting that the cyanobacterial community composition affects geosmin levels.

     

  • 저자명 : Hyun Jae Kim, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Gyutae Park, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr, Keyhong Park, Joon Young Ahn, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Kyunghoon Kim, Seung-Myung Park, Eun Hea Jho & Yongjoo Choi
     
    Author Affiliations
    Kim, H.J., Lee, T., Park, T. et al. Ship-borne observations of sea fog and rain chemistry over the North and South Pacific Ocean. J Atmos Chem 76, 315 326 (2019).

    발행연도 : 23 May 2020
     
    ISSN : 0167-7764
     
    발행처 : Springer
     
    Keyword : Sea fog, Rain composition, Marine aerosol chemical composition, North and South Pacific Ocean, Marine background aerosol
     
    Abstract
    Clouds, fogs, and rain can serve as useful integrators of both atmospheric aerosols and soluble trace gases. To better understand the chemical characteristics of sea fog and rain in the North and South Pacific Ocean, fog and rain were measured aboard the R/V ARAON in 2012 and 2014, respectively, as part of the Ship-borne Pole-to-Pole Observations (SHIPPO) project. The mean sea fog pH (3.59) was lower than the mean rain pH (4.54), reflecting greater inputs of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42 . For the collected rain, nss-Ca2+ and nss-Mg2+ from mineral dust particles were the major contributors to acidity neutralization. NO3  concentrations, which are derived from scavenging of gaseous nitric acid and aerosol nitrate, were higher than NH4+ concentrations, indicating that terrestrial and/or local anthropogenic NO3  sources outweighed contributions from anthropogenic or biological oceanic NH3/NH4+ sources. The ratio of Cl /Na+ in the sea fog was slightly lower than that in the sea water due to HCl volatilization from scavenged sea-salt particles. The ratio of NH4+/ nss-Ca2+ was lower in the rain than in the sea fog, revealing the influence of mineral dust particles at altitudes above the sea fog layer. The average sea fog water TOC concentration, 13.2 ppmC, was much higher than the measured TOC concentrations in marine fogs and clouds in other remote environments, likely due to continental influence; the TN and TOC concentrations in the fog water were much higher than those in the rain. The sea fog and rain chemical properties measured during research cruises like these enhance our understanding of wet deposition and cloud condensation nuclei sources and processes in the Pacific Ocean.

     

     

  • 저자명 : Byoung-cheun Lee,Cuong N. Duong,Jungkon Kim *,Suejin Kim,Ig-chun Eom andPilje Kim
     
    Author Affiliations
    Risk Assessment Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Korea
    * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
     
    발행연도 : 29 May 2020
     
    발행처 : MDPI
     
    Keyword : nanoparticles; estrogen receptor; Japanese medaka; receptor binding assay; yeast
     
    Abstract
    In order to investigate the effects of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on the performance of in vitro bioassay, zinc oxide NP (ZnO NP), aluminum oxide NP (Al2O3 NP), bare silver NP (Ag NP), and Ag NP capped with citrate (Agcit NP) were evaluated with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y190) two-hybrid system (YES assay), carrying Japanese medaka estrogen receptors (mERs) in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 6 M), a reference chemical for estrogenic activity. The distribution of NPs in the yeast was also examined by field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The results show that TEM analysis revealed that NPs were present inside the yeast and accumulated deep inside the cell organelles, suggesting that cell death was caused by NPs. However, despite no significant change of mortality, the E2 estrogenic activities in yeast exposed to ZnO NP and Al2O3 NP were dose-dependently reduced. For Ag NP and Agcit NP, such phenomenon observed in the exposure of ZnO NP and Al2O3 NP did not occur. From the observations, we found that ZnO NP and Al2O3 NP in the environmental media could result in underestimated estrogenicity of endocrine-disrupting compounds when evaluated by YES assay.

     

     

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